Essays

McAlpin, Gordon. “About This Project.” Turn Out the Stars When You Leave. Last modified on December 18, 2015.

McAlpin, Gordon. “Bangs and Whimpers.” Turn Out the Stars When You Leave. Last modified on December 19, 2015.

McAlpin, Gordon. “Breaking the Silents.” Turn Out the Stars When You Leave. Last modified on February 12, 2016.

McAlpin, Gordon. “Davids and Goliaths.” Turn Out the Stars When You Leave. Last modified on December 20, 2015.

McAlpin, Gordon. “Further Reading.” Turn Out the Stars When You Leave. Last modified on November 29, 2015.

McAlpin, Gordon. “Introduction.” Turn Out the Stars When You Leave. Last modified on November 30, 2015.

McAlpin, Gordon. “One Day’s Rest in Seven.” Turn Out the Stars When You Leave. Last modified on December 20, 2015.

McAlpin, Gordon. “The War of Wages.” Turn Out the Stars When You Leave. Last modified on December 18, 2015.

Primary Sources

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“‘Awful’ Shows At Theatres Says Patron,” Minneapolis Labor Review, September 27, 1927.

““Road Call” Hits Theatres,” Minneapolis Labor Review, October 10, 1927.

“100 Police and Special Agents Guard Theaters Against Terrorism,” St. Paul Dispatch, October 11, 1927.

“11 Twin City Theatres Joined to Publix Chain,” New York Times, March 28, 1928.

“12 Producers Agree to Hold Salary Cuts Until August 1,” The Film Daily, July 3, 1927.

“14-Hour Day Not Unusual Theatre Workers Assert,” Minneapolis Labor Review, September 23, 1927.

“180 Houses in F. & R.-Saxe Pool Reported Completed,” The Film Daily, July 8, 1927.

“1926 in Headlines,” The Film Year Book 1927, 1927.

“1931 in Review — The Year’s Headlines,” The 1932 Film Daily Year Book, 1932.

J. S. Dickerson, “21,766,366 Weekly Attendance in Key Cities,” Motion Picture News, November 6, 1926.

“51,103 Houses, World’s Total,” The Film Daily 1928 Year Book,

“66 Houses Gross $53,096,639,” The Film Daily 1928 Year Book, 1928.

“A New Business,” The Film Daily 1929 Year Book, 1929.

“A String of Twenty Compelling Film Facts,” The 1930 Film Daily Year Book, 1930.

“Academy of M. P. Arts and Sciences,” The Film Daily 1928 Year Book, 1928.

“Acts Draw Suburban Fans to Cities,” Motion Picture News, December 11, 1926.

“All Negotiations Off in Mpls. Strike,” The Film Daily, October 12, 1927.

“Announcement Rouses Twin Cities Interest,” The Film Daily, October 25, 1927.

“Another Bombing,” The Film Daily, October 11, 1927.

“Another Minneapolis Suburban?,” The Film Daily, July 21, 1927.

“Anti-Labor Forces Plot Defeat,” Minnesota Union Advocate, October 13, 1927.

“Bomb Discovered,” Variety, October 14, 1925.

“Bubble-bursting in the Movies,” The Literary Digest, July 9, 1927.

Rose Baron, “Burning the Records,” The Labor Defender, November 1927.

“Chicago Exhibitors Close 350 Movie Theatres: Fight With Union Hits 400,000 Patrons,” New York Times, August 30, 1927.

“Chicago Movie Men See a Wider Tie-Up,” New York Times, August 31, 1927.

“City Moves to End Minneapolis Strike,” The Film Daily, October 20, 1927.

“De Mille Asserts Talkers Will Improve Our Speech,” The Film Daily, November 20, 1929.

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“Finkelstein & Ruben Closes Deal for Publix Alliance,” The Film Daily, September 18, 1927.

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“Hamm Got $7,000,000 Cash, F. & R. $3,000,000 Stock?,” The Film Daily, July 26, 1929.

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“Incompetent Movie Men Cause Theater Fires in Twin Cities,” Minnesota Union Advocate, September 29, 1927.

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“Introduction (1930),” The 1930 Film Daily Year Book, 1930.

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“Key City Grosses (1929) — Minneapolis and St. Paul Theaters,” The Film Daily 1929 Year Book,

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“Labor Troubles Threaten,” Motion Picture News, August 26, 1927.

“Last-Minute Hitches Block Pooling of F. & R. and Saxe,” The Film Daily, July 27, 1927.

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“Mill City Film Plant Is Damaged by Blast,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, October 1, 1927.

“Missapprehension Held Causing ‘Holdouts’,” The Film Daily, July 6, 1927.

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“Motion Picture Facts,” The Film Daily 1929 Year Book, 1929.

“Motion Pictures: Vital facts and nutshell statistics,” The Film Year Book 1927, 1927.

“Motion Pictures: Vital Facts and Nutshell Statistics The Amazingly Portray the Greatness of a Tremendous Industry,” The Film Daily 1928 Year Book, 1928.

“Movie Machine Operators Do Not Foresee Trouble,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, September 1, 1927.

“Movie Operators Demand Pay Rise,” Minneapolis Journal, August 30, 1927.

“Movie Operators Strike,” New York Times, August 24, 1927.

“Movie Patrons Rush to Chicago Theatres,” New York Times, September 5, 1927.

“Movie Producers Defer Wage Cut,” New York Times, July 1, 1927.

“Movie Producers Defer Wage Slash,” New York Times, July 2, 1927.

“Movie Strike Ends in Chicago Houses,” New York Times, September 4, 1927.

“Movie Theater Heads to Form Single Body,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, May 3, 1927.

“Movie Theaters and Admissions (table),” Spring 2001.

“Musicians Fear Talking Films Will Cut Jobs,” Minneapolis Labor Review, July 20, 1928.

“Musicians Ready to Quit Theaters,” Minneapolis Journal, September 24, 1927.

“Musicians to Join Stage Hand Strike,” St. Paul Dispatch, September 21, 1927.

“Musicians to Join Theater Strikers,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, September 23, 1927.

“Musicians Walk Out of Theaters on Eastern Call,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, September 25, 1927.

“Musicians’ Union, Show Managers Sign Working Agreement,” Minneapolis Labor Review, September 9, 1927.

“N.W. Unit Merging,” The Film Daily, June 5, 1927.

“New Firm to Handle F.&.R.–Publix Deal,” The Film Daily, October 13, 1927.

“No’west T. O. to Present Requests to Labor,” Motion Picture News, July 1, 1927.

“North Side Theater Bombed,” Minneapolis Tribune, October 10, 1927.

“Northwest M.P.T.O. Meet,” Motion Picture News, May 20, 1927.

“Northwest Mgrs. and Union in Deadlock,” Variety, September 21, 1927.

“Northwest Theater Men Meet in Move Against Producers,” Saint Paul Dispatch, February 5, 1929.

“Orchestras Go Out of F. & R. Theatres,” Variety, July 6, 1927.

“Panic Narrowly Prevented When Film Blaze Starts in Theatre; Daily Newspapers Suppress Facts,” Minneapolis Labor Review, September 27, 1927.

“Parley Seeks to End Stage Strike,” Minneapolis Journal, October 9, 1927.

Jack Alicoate, “Past and Future (1927),” The Film Year Book 1927, 1927.

Jack Alicoate, “Past and Future (1928),” The Film Daily Year Book 1928, 1927.

“Picture Operators Get Wage Increase; Sign One-Year Pact,” Minneapolis Labor Review, September 9, 1927.

“Picture Operators Join Stage Strike,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, September 21, 1927.

Willard C. Howe, “Play My Pictures or I Will Build a Theatre!,” Exhibitors Trade Review, August 22, 1925.

“Plea by Theatre Owners,” New York Times, July 15, 1928.

“Public Opinion Seen as Factor in Strike,” The Film Daily, October 2, 1927.

“Publix May Build 2,400 Seat Theatre in Minneapolis; Competition Foreseen,” Motion Picture News, December 25, 1926.

“Publix–F. & R. Deal Is Climax of Long Parleys,” The Film Daily, July 15, 1929.

“Regarding Color, 1930–1931,” The 1931 Film Daily Year Book, 1931.

“Regarding Television, 1930–1931,” The 1931 Film Daily Year Book, 1931.

“Regarding Wide Film, 1930–1931,” The 1931 Film Daily Year Book, 1931.

“Relief Felt Over Twin City Strike Ending,” The Film Daily, October 28, 1927.

“Representative Exhibitors’ Views on Brookhart Bill,” Motion Picture News, January 28, 1928.

“Salary Cut in Doubt as Opposition Grows,” Motion Picture News, July 8, 1927.

“Salient Facts and Figures,” The Film Year Book 1927, 1927.

“Saxe Reported in New Dickers for Hook-Up,” The Film Daily, August 1, 1927.

“Says Film Exhibitors Opposed Arbitration,” New York Times, March 23, 1929.

“Says Profits, Not Wages, Have Raised the Cost of Living,” American Appeal, September 24, 1927.

“St. Paul Movie Operators Strike,” New York Times, September 22, 1927.

“St. Paul Theater Closed to Halt Musicians Row,” St. Paul Dispatch, September 1, 1927.

Estelle M. Stewart, “Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, International Alliance of Theatrical,” Handbook of American Trade-Unions 1926, October 1926.

“Stage Employees Ask One Day Off During Week; Operators Out,” Minneapolis Labor Review, September 23, 1927.

“Stagehands Here Picket Theaters,” Minneapolis Journal, September 22, 1927.

“Stagehands Join Chicago Strikers,” New York Times, September 2, 1927.

“Stagehands of Ten Twin City Theaters Strike,” Minneapolis Journal, September 18, 1927.

“Strength: Leading the New Show World of 1930,” The 1930 Film Daily Year Book, 1930.

“Strike for Six Day Week Hits Every Theater,” Duluth Labor World, October 1, 1927.

“Strike of Theater Workers Is 100 Per Cent,” Minnesota Union Advocate, September 29, 1927.

“Strike Stuff,” Variety, September 7, 1927.

“Strong Efforts Being Made to Break Deadlock in Twin Cities,” The Film Daily, October 25, 1927.

“Studio Economy and Efficiency at Highest Peak, Lasky Says,” The Film Daily, October 5, 1927.

“Sympathy Theater Strike Held Likely,” St. Paul Dispatch, September 20, 1927.

“Ten Biggest News Events in the News of Motion Pictures During 1930,” The 1931 Film Daily Year Book, 1929.

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“The Collective Spirit,” Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (brochure), July 15, 1930.

“The Forward March of Production: Color,” The 1930 Film Daily Year Book, 1930.

“The Forward March of Production: Sound,” The 1930 Film Daily Year Book, 1930.

“The Forward March of Production: Wide Films,” The 1930 Film Daily Year Book, 1930.

“The Movie Strike,” New York Times, September 3, 1927.

“The Path of Progress: Events That Have Made Film History,” The 1930 Film Daily Year Book, 1930.

“The Ten Biggest Motion Picture News Events of 1929,” The 1930 Film Daily Year Book, 1930.

“The Ten Leading Events in the News of Motion Pictures During the Year 1931,” The 1932 Film Daily Year Book, 1932.

“The Theater Strike,” Minneapolis Journal, September 27, 1927.

“The What-Not Column,” Minneapolis Labor Review, July 27, 1928.

“Theater Bombed on W. Broadway,” Minneapolis Journal, October 10, 1927.

“Theater Managers Try the Citizens’ Alliance Advertising Scheme,” Minnesota Union Advocate, September 22, 1927.

“Theater Men Give Version of Row,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, September 22, 1927.

“Theater Strike as in Chicago Feared Here,” St. Paul Dispatch, August 31, 1927.

“Theaters Find It Costly to Break Union Agreement,” Duluth Labor World, October 1, 1927.

“Theatre Musicians Win Pay Increases,” New York Times, August 31, 1927.

“Theatre Strike Ends,” Minneapolis Labor Review, October 28, 1927.

“Theatre Strike Halted,” Motion Picture News, September 23, 1927.

“Total Loss to Chicago Exhibitors in Union’s Bad Beating of Orpheum,” Variety, September 7, 1927.

“Twin City Showman, Union Compromise to Settle Strike,” The Film Daily, October 27, 1927.

“Twin City Strike Ends,” Motion Picture News, November 11, 1927.

“Twin City Theatrical Employees Forced Out,” Minnesota Union Advocate, September 22, 1927.

“Union Disavows All Knowledge of Stink Bomb Outrages Here,” Minneapolis Labor Review, September 27, 1927.

“Unique Items from the Statistical Records of The Film Daily,” The 1931 Film Daily Year Book, 1931.

“Wage Increase Given Mill City Movie Operators,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, September 2, 1927.

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“Year in Headlines (1928),” The Film Daily 1929 Year Book, 1929.

Secondary Sources

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Gendy Alimurung, “Movie Studios Are Forcing Hollywood to Abandon 35mm Film. But the Consequences of Going Digital Are Vast, and Troubling,” LA Weekly, April 12, 2012.

Daniel Bertrand, The Motion Picture Industry, The Evidence Study Series (National Recovery Administration Division of Review, November 1935).

David Balaban, The Chicago Movie Palaces of Balaban and Katz (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2006).

Alex Ben Block and Lucy Autrey Wilson, eds., George Lucas’s Blockbusting: A Decade-by-Decade Survey of Timeless Movies Including Untold Secrets of Their Financial and Cultural Success (New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2010), 112–113

David Bordwell, “Pandora’s Digital Box: End Times,” Observations on Film Art, May 12, 2013.

Richard Butsch, “American Movie Audiences of the 1930s,” International Labor and Working-Class History, no. 59, Workers and Film: As Subject and Audience (Spring 2001).

Lizabeth Cohen, Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919–1939, Second Edition (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

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Anthony D’Alessandro, “2014 Box Office Final: Admissions Lowest Since 1995; Studio Marketshare,” Deadline Hollywood, January 5, 2015.

Anthony D’Alessandro, “Box Office 2014: Action Pics Shoot Up With ‘Guardians’ & ‘Mockingjay’ While Other Genres Take A Hit,” Deadline Hollywood, January 5, 2015.

Elizabeth Fones-Wolf, “Sound Comes to the Movies: The Philadelphia Musicians’ Struggle Against Recorded Music,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History & Biography CXVIII, no. 1/2 (April 1994).

Fred Fedeli and Roy Rosenzweig, “‘We Ran Silent Movies For Years’: An Italian Immigrant Goes Into Show Business in the Early 20th century” [interview with Fedeli conducted by Rosenzweig on February 23, 1978], History Matters, n.d.

Harold B. Franklin, Motion Picture Theater Management (New York: George H. Doran Co., 1927).

Douglas Gomery, The Coming of Sound (New York, NY: Routledge, 2005).

Douglas Gomery, Shared Pleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992).

Douglas Gomery, “The Picture Palace: Economic Sense or Hollywood Nonsense?,” Quarterly Review of Film Studies 3, no. 1 (Winter 1978): 24–36.

Douglas Gomery, “The Movies Become Big Business: Publix Theatres and the Chain Store Strategy,” Cinema Journal 18, no. 2 (Spring 1979): 26–40.

Halsey, Stuart & Co., The Motion Picture Industry as a Basis for Bond Financing (Chicago, IL: Halsey, Stuart & Co., 1927).

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Dave Kenney, Twin Cities Picture Show: A Century of Moviegoing (Saint Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2007).

Jeffrey Klenotic, “‘Four Hours of Hootin’ and Hollerin’’: Moviegoing and Everyday Life Outside the Movie Palace,” in Going to the Movies: Hollywood and the Social Experience of Cinema, ed. Richard Maltby, Melvyn Stokes, and Robert C. Allen (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2007).

Brent Lang, “A Bleak Picture for Non-Digital Independent Theaters: Convert or Die,” The Wrap, August 16, 2012.

Howard T. Lewis, The Motion Picture Industry (New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1933).

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David Nasaw, Going Out: The Rise and Fall of Public Amusements (New York, NY: BasicBooks, 1993).

National Association of Theatre Owners, “Number of U.S. Movie Screens,” n.d.

Thomas L. Olson. “Blockbusters: Minnesota’s Movie Men Slug it out with Studio Moguls, 1938–1948,” Minnesota Legal History Project, January 1, 2014 (expanded January 13, 2014).

Jill Pellettieri, “Make It a Large for a Quarter More?: A Short History of Movie Theater Concession Stands,” Slate, June 26, 2007.

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Maggie Valentine, The Show Starts on the Sidewalk: An Architectural History of the Movie Theatre (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994).

Charles Rumford Walker, American City: A Rank and File History of Minneapolis (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1937).

Figures

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“1927–1928 Is Going to Be the Test Year!,” July 8, 1927, The Internet Archive.

“51,103 Houses, World’s Total,” The Internet Archive.

C. J. Hibbard & Company, “7th Street, East from Wabasha, St. Paul, Minn.,” approximately 1910, Minnesota Historical Society.

Weaver L.A., “Academy Organization Banquet, 1927,” May 11, 1927, Margaret Herrick Library Digital Collections.

“Acrobatic act and band at Famous F. & R. Kiddie Review, Capitol Theater, St. Paul,” December 17, 1927, Minnesota Historical Society.

Norton and Peel(?), “Aerial View of Downtown Minneapolis Looking North Towards the Broadway Bridge,” approximately 1927–1935, Hennepin County Library.

Rembrandt, “Aster Theater auditorium,” 1929, Minnesota Historical Society.

Rembrandt, “Aster Theater hallway,” 1929, Minnesota Historical Society.

Rembrandt, “Aster Theater lobby,” 1929, Minnesota Historical Society.

Norton & Peel and Hibbard Studio, “Aster Theater, 605-607 Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis,” October 7, 1929, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Astor Theatre, St. Paul,” Early 1920s(?), Cinema Treasures.

“Bijou Theatre, 20 Washington Avenue North, Minneapolis,” Unknown (1930s?), Cinema Treasures.

Charles P. Gibson, “Blue Mouse Theater, Hennepin Avenue between Seventh and Eighth Streets, Minneapolis,” approximately 1920, Minnesota Historical Society.

C. J. Hibbard, “Boy looking at movie playbills in theater lobby,” 1920, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Capitol Theater, 18–26 West Seventh, St. Paul,” 1928, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Capitol Theater, St. Paul, Minnesota,” 1929, University of Minnesota Libraries.

A. D. Roth, “Century Theatre, 38 South Seventh, Minneapolis,” 1937, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Children standing outside the Minnesota Theatre, 36-40 Ninth Street South, Minneapolis.,” approximately 1930, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Dale Theater, St. Paul, Minnesota,” 1930–1945, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“Diagonal view from across the street of the Orpheum Theater, Minneapolis,” 1930–1940, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“Eddie Dunstedter at organ, Minnesota Theater,” approximately 1930, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Faust Theater, St. Paul, Minnesota,” 1930–1938, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“Female ushers, employees of Finkelstein and Ruben, St. Paul,” 1925, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Finkelstein & Ruben and managers of the Finkelstein & Ruben chain of movie theaters,” approximately 1930, Minnesota Historical Society.

Collins, “First Orpheum Theater orchestra, St. Paul,” 1905, Minnesota Historical Society.

Minneapolis Times, “Front of the Granada Theater at 3020 Hennepin Avenue,” September 16, 1928, Hennepin County Library.

“Heights Theater, Columbus Heights, MN,” 1930(?), Cinema Treasures.

“Hennepin Avenue between Eighth and Ninth Streets, Minneapolis,” approximately 1930, Minnesota Historical Society.

Chicago Tribune, “Historic Central Park Theater, Chicago, IL,” 1920s, Chicago Tribune.

“Homewood Theater, Minneapolis, Minnesota,” 1925–1930, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“How Film Dollar Is Spent / Trend in Double Features,” 1928, The Internet Archive.

Charles P. Gibson, “Interior of State Theater, Minneapolis.,” approximately 1925, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Leonard Leigh, organist at the Paramount Theater,” approximately 1930, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Liberty Theater, North 6th and Lyndale Avenue North, Minneapolis, Minnesota,” Unknown (early 1920s?), University of Minnesota Libraries.

“Logan Sweet Shoppe and a movie theater, 2027 West Broadway, Minneapolis,” approximately 1930, Minnesota Historical Society.

Busch, “Looking North on Nicollet Avenue from 11th Street,” 1936, Hennepin County Library.

John Neal of 3M Company, “Looking South on Hennepin Avenue from 6th Street,” 1928, Hennepin County Library.

C. J. Hibbard, “Loring Theater, 1405 Nicollet, Minneapolis,” 1921, Minnesota Historical Society.

Minneapolis Star Journal, “Lyceum Theater, 85 Eleventh Street South, Minneapolis,” March 2, 1943, Minnesota Historical Society.

Lee Brothers, “Lyceum Theater, 85 South Eleventh, Minneapolis,” approximately 1920, Minnesota Historical Society.

Norton & Peel, “Lyceum Theatre, Minneapolis,” circa 1925, Placeography.

Minneapolis Tribune, “Metropolitan Theater, 320 Marquette, Minneapolis,” 1937, Minnesota Historical Society.

Minneapolis Star Journal Tribune, “Minneapolis Theater demolition,” July 14, 1953, Minnesota Historical Society.

Minneapolis Star Journal Tribune, “Minneapolis Theater demolition,” July 14, 1953, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Minnesota Theater, 36-40 Ninth South, Minneapolis,” approximately 1935, Minnesota Historical Society.

Norton & Peel, “Minnesota Theater, 36-40 Ninth Street South, Minneapolis,” March 23, 1929, Minnesota Historical Society.

Chicago Architectural Photographing Company, “MN-St Paul-Capitol Full Building Exterior,” 1920s(?), Theater Historical Society of America.

“Moses L. Finkelstein with his son Leonard, his business partner Isaac H. Ruben, and actor Gary Cooper at Paramount Picture Studio,” 1929, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Movie Theaters and Admissions (table),” Spring 2001, JSTOR.

“New Garrick Theater, 40 South Seventh Street, Minneapolis,” 1925, Minnesota Historical Society.

Norton & Peel, “Nokomis Theater, 3749 Chicago Avenue, Minneapolis,” October 29, 1929, Minnesota Historical Society.

Anthony F. Dumas, “Orpheum (President) Theatre,” 1933, Library of Congress.

Norton & Peel and Hibbard Studio, “Palace Theater, 414 Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis,” October 7, 1929, Minnesota Historical Society.

C. J. Hibbard, “Pantages Theater, 708 Hennepin, Minneapolis,” 1920, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Paradise Theater auditorium, Faribault, MN,” 1930s?, Paradise Center for the Arts.

“Paradise Theater façade, Faribault, MN,” 1930s?, Paradise Center for the Arts.

Minneapolis Star Journal, “Paradise Theater, 2027 West Broadway, Minneapolis,” October 1, 1938, Minnesota Historical Society.

Anthony F. Dumas, “Paramount Theatre (formerly The Capitol),” 1934, Library of Congress.

“Partial view of the auditorium and lower portion of the balcony of the Orpheum Theater, Minneapolis,” 1930–1940, University of Minnesota Libraries.

Minneapolis Journal, “People lined up outside the Garrick Theater, Minneapolis,” approximately 1925, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Picketing the New National Theater, Minneapolis,” November 15, 1917, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Production at State Theater,” approximately 1925, Minnesota Historical Society.

Frederic Madan, “Radio Comes to Show World,” July 1929, The Internet Archive.

“Red Top cab in front of Hennepin–Orpheum Theater,” 1925, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Ritz Theater, Minneapolis,” 1920s(?), Cinema Treasures.

“Setting revolving stage at Metropolitan Theater, 320 Marquette, Minneapolis,” 1931, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Setting revolving stage at Metropolitan Theater, 320 Marquette, Minneapolis,” 1931, Minnesota Historical Society.

Charles P. Gibson, “Seventh Street East looking east from Wabasha, St. Paul,” Approximately 1914, Minnesota Historical Society.

Norton & Peel and Hibbard Studio, “Shubert Theater, 20-22 North Seventh Street, Minneapolis,” October 7, 1929, Minnesota Historical Society.

“St. Clair Theater, St. Paul, Minnesota,” 1936, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“St. Clair Theater, St. Paul, Minnesota,” 1936, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“St. Clair Theater, St. Paul, Minnesota,” 1936, University of Minnesota Libraries.

Minneapolis Tribune, “Staff Women Polishing a Chandelier at the Minnesota Theater,” May 8, 1928, Hennepin County Library.

“Stage and orchestra, Garrick Theater, St. Paul,” approximately 1930, Minnesota Historical Society.

Norton and Peel, “Stage of the Granada Theater at 3020 Hennepin Avenue,” September 16, 1928, Hennepin County Library.

“Stagehands at the Shubert Theater, Minneapolis,” approximately 1920, Minnesota Historical Society.

“State Crowd in 1920s,” approximately 1925, Minneapolis Public Library.

Minneapolis Journal, “State Theater ushers,” approximately 1925, Minnesota Historical Society.

Minneapolis Journal, “State Theater ushers taking a break,” approximately 1925, Minnesota Historical Society.

“State Theatre in 1923,” 1923, Hennepin Theatre Trust.

“Stores damaged by a bomb intended for the Falls Theater,” February 18, 1932, Minnesota Historical Society.

Russell Lee, “Street scene. Minneapolis, Minnesota,” May 1937, Library of Congress.

“Strength: Leading the New Show World of 1930,” 1930, The Internet Archive.

Charles P. Gibson, “Summit Theater, Selby and Western, St. Paul,” approximately 1920, Minnesota Historical Society.

Minneapolis Tribune, “The Cozy Theater on Plymouth Avenue North After a Bomb Exploded,” July 7, 1934, Hennepin County Library.

“The Gorilla Is Coming Soon,” October 1927, The Internet Archive.

“The Haunted Ship,” July 8, 1927, The Internet Archive.

“The Paramount Exhibitor says: Fly-by-night advertising stunts,” December 16, 1927, The Internet Archive.

“The Paramount Exhibitor says: I’m going to build another theatre,” December 9, 1927, The Internet Archive.

“The Paramount Exhibitor says: It takes Paramount to acquire properties,” December 13, 1927, The Internet Archive.

“The Shadows of Great Events,” October 26, 1927, The Internet Archive.

Minneapolis Star Journal, “Time Theater, 729 Hennepin, Minneapolis,” March 14, 1938, Minnesota Historical Society.

“Uptown Theater, Minneapolis, Minnesota,” 1935–1945, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“Uptown Theater, Minneapolis, Minnesota,” 1935–1945, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“Uptown Theater, Minneapolis, Minnesota,” 1935–1945, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“Ushers at the State Theater, Minneapolis,” 1930, Minnesota Historical Society.

J. H. Kammerdiener, “Ushers, Minnesota Theater, Minneapolis,” 1928, Minnesota Historical Society.

“View from the side aisle of the auditorium, balconies and ceiling of the Orpheum Theater, Minneapolis,” 1930–1940, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“View of a hallway in the Orpheum Theater, Minneapolis,” 1930–1940, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“View of a hallway in the Suburban World Theater, Minneapolis,” 1927–1930, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“View of the auditorium of the Suburban World Theater, Minneapolis,” 1927–1930, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“View of the box office lobby of the Orpheum Theater, Minneapolis,” 1930–1940, University of Minnesota Libraries.

“Vitaphone, Capitol Theater,” 1927, Minnesota Historical Society.

“what’s the use of talking? (advertisement),” July 22, 1927, The Internet Archive.

“when you can point with pride to a list of outstanding Specials and Star Hits like this—,” December 29, 1927, The Internet Archive.

“Women sitting in a car in front of the Belmont Theater,” 1927, Chicago History Museum.


Tags

1927 Chicago theater strike

1927 Twin Cities theater strike

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

American Federation of Musicians

Aster Theater

bombings

Capitol Theater

E. R. Ruben

film economy

Finkelstein & Ruben

Garrick Theater

Hennepin-Orpheum Theater

International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees

Jack Alicoate

labor unions

Liebenberg and Kaplan

Logan Theater

Lyceum Theater

mergers

Metropolitan Theater

Minnesota Theater

Moses L. Finkelstein

motion picture operators

musicians

Northwest Theater Owners Association

October

Orpheum Theater

Paramount Famous–Lasky Corporation

Paramount–Publix

projectionists

salary slash

Saxe Amusement Enterprises

stagehands

State Theater

theater owners

Theodore Hays

Turn Out the Stars When You Leave

ushers

Vitaphone

wage cuts

Warner Brothers

William A. Steffes

William F. Canavan

William H. Hays

William Hamm


Dates

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August 1925

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November 1917

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